Silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles, also known as silica nanoparticles or nanosilica, are the basis for a great deal of biomedical research due to their stability, low toxicity and ability to be functionalized with a range of molecules and polymers.
Nano-silica particles are divided into P-type and S-type according to their structure. The P-type particles are characterized by numerous nanopores having a pore rate of 0.61 ml/g. The S-type particles have a comparatively smaller surface area. The P-type nano-silica particles exhibit a higher ultraviolet reflectivity when compared to the S-type. Silicon belongs to Block P, Period 3 while oxygen belongs to Block P, Period 2 of the periodic table.
The following are the chief applications of silica nanoparticles:
As an additive for rubber and plastics
As a strengthening filler for concrete and other construction composites
As a stable, non-toxic platform for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and theranostics